The Oil and Gas Addendum

An Oil and Gas Blog for Landowners. The law of oil and gas here in Pennsylvania and throughout the Marcellus Shale region is complex and continues to evolve and change. If you own oil and gas rights, keeping up to date on these changes and trends is critical. The Oil and Gas Addendum is your resource for timely and informational articles on the latest developments in oil and gas law. Our oil and gas practice here at Houston Harbaugh is dedicated to protecting the interests of landowners and royalty owners. From new lease negotiations, to title disputes, to royalty litigation, we can help. We know oil and gas.

Federal District Court In Ohio Rules That Chesapeake Did Not Breach Lease When It Deducted Costs From Royalty

In the ongoing royalty dispute in Lutz v. Chesapeake Appalachia, LLC, the federal district court sitting in Akron, Ohio recently ruled that Chesapeake did not breach the parties’ lease when it deducted post-production costs. The result is not surprising and does not represent a radical departure of existing law. The lease at issue in Lutz stated that the royalty was to be based on the “market value at the well.” Given this language, the district court applied Ohio law and concluded that Chesapeake acted in accordance with the lease when it used the “net back method” to arrive at the wellhead value. Despite rumblings suggesting otherwise, the Lutz decision is not a game-changer.

The Lutz litigation originated in federal court in 2009. At issue were two oil/gas leases which were executed in the early 1970s. The landowners, Regis and Marion Lutz, argued that because there is no market for the gas at the well itself, the lessee, Chesapeake, had an implied duty to market the gas once it is brought to the surface. Given this implied duty, the landowners further argued that Chesapeake was responsible for all of the costs incurred between the wellhead and the eventual point-of-sale. In essence, the landowners urged the federal district court to adopt the “marketable product” rule and hold that no costs can be deducted unless and until the raw gas is transformed into a marketable condition.

Chesapeake, on the other hand, argued that Ohio should follow the “at the well” rule and give effect to the language set forth in the parties’ lease. As noted, the royalty clauses in each lease provided that the royalties were to be paid based on “the market value at the well”. Since the gas was sold downstream from the wellhead, Chesapeake used the “netback method” to deduct the costs incurred between the wellhead and the eventual sale location. Chesapeake argued that Ohio follows the “at the well” rule, which permits the use of the netback method to calculate the market value of the gas at the wellhead. Contrary to the landowner’s suggestion, Chesapeake urged the federal district court to reject the “marketable product” rule and confirm that Ohio is, in fact, an “at the well” jurisdiction.

The Lutz litigation took a rather unusual and protracted path. As noted, the litigation was originally commenced in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Ohio sitting in Akron (the “Federal Suit”). In August 2014, Chesapeake moved for summary judgment in the Federal Suit. Chesapeake requested that the landowner’s contract claim be dismissed since the deductions were proper and in accordance with the netback methodology. The landowners filed their own motion for summary judgment seeking an order that Chesapeake had breached the leases by taking improper and unauthorized deductions. The judge in the Federal Suit was unable to decide the cross-motions because of the murky status of Ohio law on deductions. As such, in March 2015, the judge requested clarification from the Ohio Supreme Court on this certified question of Ohio law:

Does Ohio follow the “at the well” rule (which permits the deduction of post-production costs) or does it follow some version of the “marketable product” rule (which limits the deduction of post-production costs under certain circumstances)?

A certified question is a formal request by one court to another for a clarification of a unique question of state law. See, Rule 9.01 of the Ohio Supreme Court’s Rules of Practice (“[t]he Supreme Court may answer a question of law certified to it by a court of the United States”). On April 6, 2015, the Ohio Supreme Court accepted the request and agreed to “answer” the certified question.

In a rather surprising and unexpected opinion, the Ohio Supreme Court announced on November 2, 2016 that it had declined to answer the certified question as posed. Instead, the Lutz court opined that the precise language in the underlying lease controls, and that the deduction analysis must essentially begin and end there:

“[U]nder Ohio law, an oil and gas lease is a contract that is subject to the traditional rules of contract construction. Because the rights and remedies of the parties are controlled by the specific language of their lease agreement, we decline to answer the certified question…”

In its November 2, 2016 opinion, the Ohio Supreme Court noted that, like other contracts, oil and gas leases are to be interpreted so as to carry out the intent of the parties. If the lease is unclear or ambiguous, the Lutz court observed that a reviewing court may resort to extrinsic evidence to ascertain the parties’ intent. The panel, however, did not reach the question of whether the royalty clauses were ambiguous. On the contrary, the Supreme Court stated that this was a question for the judge in the Federal Suit since there was no record or other testimony before the Lutz panel on this threshold issue.

The matter then returned to the Federal Suit. In August 2016, Chesapeake renewed its motion for summary judgment. This time the judge in the Federal Suit (i.e., The Honorable Sara Lioi) issued a ruling.

In accordance with the Ohio Supreme Court’s directive, Judge Lioi applied “traditional rules of contract interpretation” when evaluating the meaning and effect of the “at the wellhead” language. Judge Lioi concluded that this language was unambiguous and that it simply reflected the parties’ intent to designate the wellhead as the royalty valuation point:

“[H]ere, a close reading of the royalty provision, in light of Ohio’s contract law, leads to the conclusion that the parties’ intent was that the location for valuing the gas for purposes of computing the royalty was at the well.”

This conclusion was significant. Because the gas was not sold at the wellhead but rather at a down-stream location, Judge Lioi ruled that Chesapeake acted in accordance with the Lease when it utilized the net-back method to back-out the intervening post-production costs. In other words, even though the gas may have been sold for $4.00 per MCF at the downstream point-of-sale, that price was not reflective of the purported “value” of the gas at the wellhead. To arrive at that value, Chesapeake deducted the post-production costs incurred between the wellhead and the point-of-sale. Given the parties’ intent to value the royalty “at the wellhead”, Judge Lioi concluded that Chesapeake acted properly when it deducted the intervening post-production costs.

So what is the take away from the Lutz decision? Lutz simply confirms that the language in the parties’ lease will dictate and govern how the royalty is calculated. If the lease language designates the wellhead as the royalty valuation point, the driller might be authorized to deduct intervening costs if the gas is sold downstream. This is what happened in Lutz. Conversely, if the lease language designates the royalty valuation point as being the point-of-sale, there is no need to back-out intervening costs and driller may not be authorized to deduct any costs. In any event, special care and attention must be given to the location designated as the royalty valuation point. Lutz reaffirms the notion that the outcome of any royalty dispute will often turn on the precise language in the parties’ lease.

About Us

Oil and gas development can present unique and complex issues that can be intimidating and challenging. At Houston Harbaugh, P.C., our oil and gas practice is dedicated to protecting the interests of landowners and royalty owners. From new lease negotiations to title disputes to royalty litigation, we can help. Whether you have two acres in Washington County or 5,000 acres in Lycoming County, our dedication and commitment remains the same.

We Represent Landowners in All Aspects of Oil and Gas Law

The oil and gas attorneys at Houston Harbaugh have broad experience in a wide array of oil and gas matters, and they have made it their mission to protect and preserve the landowner’s interests in matters that include:

  • New lease negotiations
  • Pipeline right-of-way negotiations
  • Surface access agreements
  • Royalty audits
  • Tax and estate planning
  • Lease expiration claims
  • Curative title litigation
  • Water contamination claims
Pittsburgh Oil and Gas Lawyer Robert Burnett attorney headshot

Robert Burnett - Practice Chair

Robert’s practice is exclusively devoted to the representation of landowners and royalty owners in oil and gas matters. Robert is the Chair of the Houston Harbaugh’s Oil & Gas Practice Group and represents landowners and royalty owners in a wide array of oil and gas matters throughout the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Robert assists landowners and royalty owners in the negotiation of new oil and gas leases as well as modifications to existing leases. Robert also negotiates surface use agreements and pipeline right-of-way agreements on behalf of landowners. Robert also advises and counsels clients on complex lease development and expiration issues, including the impact and effect of delay rental and shut-in clauses, as well as the implied covenants to develop and market oil and gas. Robert also represents landowners and royalty owners in disputes arising out of the calculation of production royalties and the deduction of post-production costs. Robert also assists landowners with oil and gas title issues and develops strategies to resolve and cure such title deficiencies. Robert also advises clients on the interplay between oil and gas leases and solar leases and assists clients throughout Pennsylvania in negotiating solar leases.

Head shot photo of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Lawyer Brendan O'Donnell at Houston Harbaugh

Brendan A. O'Donnell

Brendan O’Donnell is a highly qualified and experienced attorney in the Oil and Gas Law practice. He also practices in our Environmental and Energy Practice. Brendan represents landowners and royalty owners in a wide variety of matters, including litigation and trial work, and in the preparation and negotiation of:

  • Leases
  • Pipeline right of way agreements
  • Surface use agreements
  • Oil, gas and mineral conveyances